We are updating the website, and a copy of the booklet: "Introduction to Recirkulation Chemistry" by Dr. Bent Urup, Aqua-Partners 1997, will soon be uploaded. (Marts 20/2017)


Further coming up soon, still being edited, will be the new updated version, "RAS chemistry with focus on Seawater", by. Dr. Bent Urup, 2007.



Knowledge and understanding of the chemistry involved is a must to be succesfull in RAS farming. Ignorance especially when dealing with seawater, will for sure cause disasters, either in mortalities, or experienced as a poor growth performance / poor feed conversion.


In seawater it is especially issues around the CO2/bicarbonate equilibrium, and  the risk of sulphide or nitrogen toxification which potentially will cause major losses.